Pumping stations in a water distribution system are necessary where water is pumped directly into the system (e.g. from a lake) or where pressure has to be increased because there is an insufficient difference in water levels in gravity flow distribution systems. The location of the pump station and intake structure (water extraction from lakes and rivers), and the anticipated heads and capacities are the major factors in the selection of pumps.
There are generally two types of pumps used for potable water pumping applications.
1. The vertical turbine pump (line shaft and submersible types)
2. The centrifugal horizontal or vertical split case pump designed for water-works service.